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Investment Law Resources




Ackermann, Tobias: The Effects of Armed Conflict on Investment Treaties, Cambridge Univ. Press 2022, ISBN 9781009207836

Akinkugbe, Olabisi: Africanization and the Reform of International Investment Law, 53 Case W. Res. J. Int'l L. 7 (2021), pp. 7-33; Available at:

Alam, Shawkat,  Jahid Hossain Bhuiyan & Jona Razzaque (eds): International Natural Resources Law, Investment and Sustainability, Routledge 2019, ISBN 978-0367871796

Baizeau, Domitille & Richard Kreindler (eds): Addressing Issues of Corruption in Commercial and Investment Arbitration, Wolters Kluwer 2015, 225 pp., IBSN 978-9041-1670-57

Baker, James: Foreign Direct Investment in Less Developed Countries - The Role of ICSID and MIGA, Praeger 1999, 250 pp., ISBN 978-0387-1280-92

Baltag, Crina & Ylli Dautaj: Promoting, Regulating, and Enforcing Human Rights Through International Investment Law and ISDS, Fordham J.Int'l L. 2021, Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 1-50

Beharry, Christina: Contemporary and Emerging Issues on the Law of Damages and Valuation in International Investment Arbitration, Brill / Nijhoff 2018, ISBN 978-9004357785

Beveridge, Fiona: The Treatment and Taxation of Foreign Investment Under International Law, Manchester Univ Press 2000, 250 pp., ISBN 0-7190-4309-3

Bian, Cheng: Foreign Direct Investment Screening and National Security: Reducing Regulatory Hurdles to Investor Through Reciprocity, Journal of World Investment & Trade 2021, Vol. 22, pp 561-595

Bonnitcha, Jonathan: Substantive Protection Under Investment Treaties - a Legal and Economic Analysis, Cambridge Univ. Press 2014, 400 pp., ISBN 978-1107-0424-14

Bonnitcha, Jonathan/Lauge Skovgaard Poulsen/Michael Waibel: The Political Economy of the Investment Treaty Regime, Oxford Univ Press 2017, pp. i-xxviii and 1-325

Borrows, John & Risa Schwartz (eds): Indigenous People and International Trade: Building Equitable and Inclusive International Trade Agreements, Cambridge Univ. Press 2020, 350 pp., ISBN 978-1108-4930-62

Braun, Johanna: Host State Circumstances and Absolute Standards of Protection in International Investment Law - Influence on the Interpretation of the Fair and Equitable Treatment and Full Protection and Security Standards, Nomos 2022, ISBN 978-3-8487-7488-3

Bungenberg, Marc/Jörn Griebel/Stephan Hobe/August Reinisch: International Investment Law - a Handbook, Hart Publishing 2015, 2000 pp., ISBN 978-1-849-46363-8

Chapter 1: General Introduction to International Investment Law
Chapter 2: The Law Relating to Aliens, the International Minimum Standard and State Responsibility
Chapter 3: State Contracts and the Relevance of Investment Contract Arbitration
Chapter 4: International Investment Agreements – History, Approaches, Schools The Evolution of the Regime of International Investment Agreements: History, Economics and Politics
Chapter 5: Two Worlds, but Not Apart: International Investment Law and General International Law
Chapter 6: The Scope of Application of International Investment Agreements
Chapter 7: The Liberalisation of the International Movement of Capital and of International Investments
Chapter 8: Standards of Protection
Chapter 9: Restitution, Damages and Compensation
Chapter 10: Obligations of Investors
Chapter 11: Dispute Resolution
Chapter 12: Political Risk Insurance and Financing of Foreign Direct Investment
Chapter 13: Contemporary Issues and Outlook
Chapter 14: The Future of International Investment Law

Bungenberg, Marc & August Reinisch: From Bilateral Arbitral Tribunals and Investment Courts to a Multilateral Investment Court, Springer 2018, pp. i - xiv and 1 - 206, ISBN 978-3-030-01188-8

Bungenberg, Marc & August Reinisch: CETA Investment Law: Article-by-Article Commentary, Nomos/Hart 2021, 600 pp., ISBN 978-1-5099-3467-6

Calamita, Nicholas Jansen: Multilateralizing Investment Facilitation at the WTO: Looking for the Added Value, Journal of Int'l Economic Law 2020, No. 4, pp. 973-988

Calamita, Nicholas J. & Charalampos Giannakopoulos, ASEAN and the Reform of Investor-State Dispute Settlement : Global Challenges and Regional Options, Edward Elgar 2022, ISBN 978-1-8022-08245

Calvert, Julia: The Politics of Investment Treaties in Latin America, Oxford Univ. Press 2022, ISBN 9780198870890

Cameron, Peter: International Energy Investment Law: The Pursuit of Stability, 2nd ed., Oxford Univ. Press 2022, ISBN 978-0198732471 

Chaisse, Julien & Sufian Jusoh: The ASEAN Comprehensive Investment Agreement - The Regionalisation of Laws and Policy on Foreign Investment, Edward Elgar 2016, ISBN: 978 1 78536 001 5

Collins, David: Performance Requirements and Investment Incentives Under International Economic Law, Edward Elgar 2016, ISBN: 978 1 78471 203 7

Collins, David: An Introduction to International Investment Law, Cambridge Univ Press 2017, 350 pp., ISBN 978-1-316-61357-3

Commission, Jeffery & Rahim Moloo: Procedural Issues in International Investment Arbitration, Oxford Univ. Press 2018, 380 pp., ISBN 978-0198-7290-37

Cotula, Lorenzo: (Dis-)integration in Global Resource Governance: Extractivism, Human Rights, and Investment Treaties, Journal of Int'l Economic Law 2020, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 431-454

Cox, Johanne: Expropriation in Investment Treaty Arbitration, Oxford Univ. Press 2019, 400 pp., ISBN 978-0198-8049-18

Cristani, Federica: How the Coronavirus Crisis Challenges International Investment (Customary) Law Rules: Which Role for the Necessity Defense?, 53 Case W. Res. J. Int'l L. 7 (2021), pp. 89-116

de Boeck, Michael: EU Law and International Investment Arbitration - The Compatibility of ISDS in Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) and the Energy Charter Treaty with the Autonomy of EU Law, Brill 2022, 575 pp., ISBN 978-9004-5016-45

Di Benedetto, Saverio: International Investment Law and the Environment, Edward Elgar 2013, ISBN: 978 0 85793 664 6

Diamond, Nicholas & Kabir Duggal: Adding New Ingredients to an Old Recipe: Do ISDS Reforms and New Investment Treaties Support Human Rights? 53 Case W. Res. J. Int'l L. 7 (2021), pp. 117-161

Dolzer, Rudolf & Christoph Schreuer: Principles of International Investment Law, Oxford Univ Press 3rd ed 2022, 560 pp., ISBN 978-0-1928-5781-1

Douglas, Zachary, Joost Pauwelyn & Jorge Vinuales (eds): The Foundations of International Investment Law - Bringing Theory into Practice, Oxford Univ. Press 2014, 540 pp., ISBN 978-0-19-968538-7

Part I. Infrastructure and Characteristics of the International Investment Regime

1. Rational Design or Accidental Evolution? The Emergence of International Investment Law

2. The Nature of Investment Disciplines

3. Analogies and Other Regimes of International Law

4. Ordering Paradigms in International Investment Law: Bilateralism - Multilateralism - Multilateralization

5. The Sociology of International Investment Law

6. The Scope and Limits of Trade's Influence in Shaping the Evolving International Investment Regime

Part II. Building Blocks of International Investment Law and Arbitration

7. The Sources of Foreign Investment Law

8. No Right Without Remedy: Foundations of Investor-State Arbitration

9. Building Legitimacy Through Interpretation in Investor-State Arbitration: On Consistency, Coherence, and the Identification of Applicable Law

10. Against Consistency in Investment Arbitration

11. Sovereignty in Foreign Investment Law

12. Property, Investment, and the Scope of Investment Protection Obligations

Part III. Managing Regime Stress Within International Investment Law

13. Control Mechanisms in International Investment Law

14. The Balancing (and Unbalancing?) of Interests in International Investment Law and Arbitration

15. Differentiating Among International Investment Disputes

16. Coordinating Adjudication Processes

Drabek, Zdenek & Petros Mavroidis (eds): Regulations of Foreign Investment - Challenges to International Harmonization, World Scientific Studies in International Economics 2013, 500 pp.

Dumberry, Patrick: The Formation and Identification of Rules of Customary International Law in International Investment Law, Cambridge Univ. Press 2016, ISBN 978-1107138520

Dumberry, Patrick: A Guide to General Principles of Law in International Investment Arbitration, Oxford Univ. Press 2020, ISBN 9780198857075

El-Hosseny, Farouk: Civil Society in Investment Treaty Arbitration - Status and Prospects, Nijhoff Int'l Investment Law Series 2018, 330 pp. ISBN 978-90-04-34912-4

Emmert, Frank: World Trade and Investment Law Documents, CILP 2018, 800 pp., ISBN 978-0985-8156-77

Emmert, Frank & Begaiym Esenkulova: Balancing Investor Protection and Sustainable Development in Investment Arbitration - Trying to Square the Circle? in Nagy, Csongor István (ed): Investment Arbitration and National Interest, CILP 2019, at pp. 12-34

Emmert, Frank & Begaiym Esenkulova: Why Can't We Be Friends? Protecting Investors While Also Protecting Legitimate Public Interests and the Sustainable Development of Host Countries in Investor-State Arbitration, Texas Journal of Business Law 2019, Vol. 48, No. 2, pp. 48-82.

Esplugues, Carlos (ed.): Foreign Investment and Investment Arbitration in Asia, Intersentia 2019, 386 pp., ISBN 978-1780-6871-31

Fouret, Julien: Enforcement of Investment Treaty Arbitration Awards - a Global Guide, Globe Law and Business 2021, 800 pp., ISBN 978-1787-4234-97

Gabor, Evan: Keeping ‘Development’ in a Multilateral Framework on Investment Facilitation for Development, Journal of World Investment & Trade 2021, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 41-91

In December 2019, World Trade Organization (WTO) Members agreed that the Structured Discussions on Investment Facilitation for Development would move into a negotiating mode, previously set to begin in March 2020. Their goal is to have a concrete outcome by the WTO’s 2021 Ministerial Conference. These negotiations are an important step towards creating a multilateral framework on a specific, technical area of foreign investment – investment facilitation. This paper seeks to do two things: (1) to provide a comprehensive analysis of a potential framework by chronicling the genesis of the idea for such a framework and the discussions, discussing competing views on an investment facilitation framework and outlining the principal elements a framework; and (2) to argue that a framework should include provisions focused on facilitating sustainable investment for sustainable development. To that end, it advances suggestions for promoting sustainable investment and introduces a provision, the Recognized Sustainable Investor, that could be included in the framework to incentivize international investors to invest sustainably.

Geiger, Christophe: Research Handbook on Intellectual Property and Investment Law, Edward Elgar 2020, ISBN 978 1 78897 781 4

1 Introduction 1
     Christophe Geiger

2 Protecting intellectual property through trade and investment agreements:
concepts, norm-setting and dispute settlement 11
     Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan
3 The object and purpose of mingling intellectual property, trade and investment 48
     Susy Frankel
4 Mapping the evolution and trends of the nexus between intellectual property, trade and investment 63
     Pedro Roffe
5 When is intellectual property an ‘investment’? 94
     Ruth L. Okediji
6 Intellectual property as protected investment: redefining the reach of investors’ rights 120
     Carlos Correa
7 The relevance of National Treatment and Most Favoured Nation in the context of intellectual property and investment disputes 137
     Lukas Vanhonnaeker
8 Keep calm and carry on: lessons from the jurisprudence on fair and equitable treatment and intellectual property rights 159
     Bryan Mercurio
9 Intellectual property, investment and the World Trade Organization (WTO): a historical account 182
     Pratyush Nath Upreti

10 The intersection of ISDS and TRIPS flexibilities 207
     Cynthia M. Ho
11 Public policy considerations in intellectual property-related international investment arbitration 218
     Simon Klopschinski
12 Investor-State Dispute Settlement and intellectual property: lessons from Lilly v. Canada 250
     Daniel Gervais

13 Jurisdictional overlaps in international intellectual property: challenges arising from the proliferation of preferential trade agreements regulating intellectual property rights 267
     Xavier Seuba
14 Adjudicating intellectual property disputes at the GATT/WTO: are there general lessons for the Investor-State Dispute Settlement system? 287
     Graham Cook and Hannu Wager
15 Protecting fundamental values in international IP disputes: investor-state vs. WTO adjudication 318
     Rochelle Cooper Dreyfuss
16 Logo? No logo? The WTO dispute on plain packaging of tobacco, and beyond 339
     Enrico Bonadio and Althaf Marsoof
17 Conceptual and institutional improvements to investor-state dispute settlement 366
     Peter K. Yu

18 The fundamental right to property and the protection of investment: how difficult is it to repeal new intellectual property rights? 385
     Martin Husovec
19 Human rights and intellectual property in investor to state dispute settlement 406
     Tuomas Mylly
20 The protection of intellectual property and foreign direct investment: the impact of equity 438
     Thomas Cottier

21 The EU’s cumbersome investment law and policy, and its effects on the protection of intellectual property rights 461
     Szilárd Gáspár-Szilágyi
22 The compliance of investment protection mechanisms in Free Trade Agreements with EU law 477
     Rainer Geiger
23 Intellectual property in trade-related international agreements: a legal analysis from the perspective of a Member State 492
     Daniel Segoin
24 Regulatory and policy issues arising from intellectual property and Investor-State Dispute Settlement in the EU: a closer look at the TTIP and CETA 505
     Christophe Geiger

Index 528

Gözlügöl, Alperen A.: The Applicability to Dispute Settlement of Most Favoured Nation Clauses in International Investment Agreements, Cambridge Law Review 2018, Vol. III, pp. 174-192

Gözlügöl, Alperen A.: The Effects of Umbrella Clauses: Their Relevance in Interpretation and in Practice, Journal of World Investment & Trade 2020, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 558-594

Gutbrod, Max & Steffen Hindelang: The Missing Bits - to Be Substituted by BITs: The Inadequacy of Russian Law in Regard to the Effective Protection of Foreign Investors, the Role of BITs and the Need for Reform Coming from Within the State, Stockholm Int'l Arbitration Rev 2006, No. 2, pp. 97-116

Hindelang, Steffen & Markus Krajewski (eds): Shifting Paradigms in International Investment Law - More Balanced, Less Isolated, Increasingly Diversified, Oxford Univ. Press 2016, 440 pp., ISBN 978-0-19-873842-8


Hobér, Kai: Investment Treaty Arbitration - Problems and Exercises, Edward Elgar Publishing 2018, pp. i - xvi and 1 - 776, ISBN 978-1-78643-984-0

Ismail, Mohamed: International Investment Arbitration: Lessons from Developments in the MENA Region, Routledge 2013, 250 pp., ISBN 978-1409-4636-34

Jarrett, Martin: Contributory Fault and Investor Misconduct in Investment Arbitration, Cambridge Univ. Press 2019, 200 pp., ISBN 978-1108-4814-03

Johnson, Julia: Towards A New Generation in Central American Trade: Proposals for Modernizing CAFTA-DR, Pace Int'l Law Review 2019, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 103-136


The Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement CAFTA-DR has been largely favorable to the United States (U.S.)—the U.S. has enjoyed significant trade surpluses with CAFTA-DR countries since its ratification. CAFTA-DR has also promoted regional integration and co-production in Central America. Trade flows in and out of Central America have increased significantly. On balance, CAFTA-DR has benefitted all signatory nations from a trade standpoint, though it has left unaddressed a myriad of social, humanitarian, and governance issues. Consequently, as CAFTA-DR is renegotiated, U.S. policymakers can build upon these successes and also make sure to take particular care to shore up certain aspects that CAFTA-DR, in its current form, has fallen short. Of note, CAFTA-DR does not incentivize or mandate efforts to improve labor conditions in Central America, leaving millions of Central Americans facing sub-par working conditions and low pay. CAFTA-DR has also been inept to address environmental externalities associated with increased economic development, particularly in the manufacturing and natural resources sectors, which often pollute or cause environmental harms as part of their operations. Further, CAFTA-DR, like other regional trade agreements, has not fostered coalitions that were previously associated with multilateral trade agreements—preventing unification on key issues affecting trade flows, and preventing a cohesive response to social and environmental concerns.

Jung, Julia: Investor-State Mediation - A Third Lane on the ISDS Highway?, ASA-Bulletin 2-2022,

Kammerhofer, Jörg: International Investment Law and Legal Theory - Expropriation and the Fragmentation of Sources, Cambridge Univ. Press 2021, 376 pp., ISBN 978-1108-8349-74

Kebe, Mouhamed: The African Continental Free Trade Area and the Future of Investor-State Dispute Settlement in Africa, Intersentia 2023, ISBN 978-1839-7036-52

Khalfaoui, Hamdi & Abdelkader Derbali: The Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment: What About the Potential of the Arab Maghreb Countries?, Journal of Investment Compliance 2021, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 295-308

Kläger, Roland: "Fair and Equitable Treatment' in International Investment Law, Cambridge Univ. Press 2011, 361 pp. , ISBN 978-0-521-19771-7

Klopschinski, Simon, Christopher Gibson & Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan: The Protection of Intellectual Property Rights Under International Investment Law, Oxford Univ. Press 2021, 600 pp., ISBN 978-0198-7122-68

Kozyakova, Anna: Foreign Investor Misconduct in International Investment Law, Springer 2020, ISBN 978-3030548544

Krepchev, Mihail: The Problem of Accommodating Indigenous Land Rights in International Investment Law, Journal of Int'l Dispute Settlement, Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2015, Pages 42–73

Leal-Arcas, Rafael: The Multilateralization of International Investment Law, North Carolina Journal of Int'l Law and Commercial Regulation 2009, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 33-135

Li, Yuwen & Cheng Bian: China's Foreign Investment Legal Regime, Routledge 2022, ISBN 9780367768881

Lim, C.L., Jean Ho & Martins Paparinskis: International Investment Law and Arbitration - Commentary, Awards, and other Materials, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2nd ed. 2021, 700 pp., ISBN 978-1108-8232-03

Linarelli, John & Margot Salomon & Muthucumaraswamy Sornarajah: The Misery of International Law - Confrontations with Injustice in the Global Economy, Oxford Univ Press 2018, ISBN 978-0198753957

Lorenzo, Johanna Aleria: The Path Toward Sustainable Development Along the Belt and Road, Journal of Int'l Economic Law 2021, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 591-608

Marboe, Irmgard: Calculation of Compensation Damages in International Investment Law, Oxford Univ. Press, 2nd ed. 2017, 550 pp.

Marco Colino, Sandra: The Internationalization of China’s Foreign Direct Investment Laws, Fordham J.Int'l L. 2021, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 276-313

Marisi, Flavia: Environmental Interests in Investment Arbitration: Challenges and Directions, Wolters Kluwer 2020, ISBN 978-9403517230

Marzal, Toni: Quantum (In)Justice: Rethinking the Calculation of Compensation and Damages in ISDS, Journal of World Investment & Trade 2021, pp. 249-312

McLachlan, Campbell & Laurence Shore & Matthew Weiniger: International Investment Arbitration: Substantive Principles, Oxford Univ. Press, 2nd ed. 2017, 520 pp., ISBN 978-0199-6768-04

Meyer, Timothy & Tae Jung Park: Renegotiating International Investment Law, Journal of Int'l Economic Law 2018, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 655-679

Miles, Kate: The Origins of International Investment Law - Empire, Environment, and the Safeguarding of Capital, Cambridge Univ. Press 2015, 500 pp., ISBN 978-1107-5381-91

Miles, Kate: Research Handbook on Environment and Investment Law, Edward Elgar 2019, ISBN 978 1 78471 462 8

1. International investment law and the environment: introduction
    Kate Miles

Part I. Environmental Issues and Investment Law
2. Foreign investment and the environment in international law: current trends
    Jorge E. Viñuales

3. Sustainable development and international investment law
    Andrea K. Bjorklund

4. Water and investment
    Ursula Kriebaum

5. Combating climate change through the promotion of green investment: from Kyoto to Paris without regime-specific dispute settlement of climate change and investment law and policy
    Freya Baetens

6. International investment law and biodiversity
    Anastasia Telesetsky

7. Environment and human rights in an investment law frame
    Elliot Luke

Part II. Disputes, Procedure and Practice in the Field
8. Treatment standards in environment-related investor-state disputes
    Chester Brown and Domenico Cucinotta

9. Procedural issues and innovations in environment-related investor-state disputes
    Judith Levine and Nicola Peart

10. Use of science in environment-related investor-state arbitration
     Jacqueline Peel

11. Green multilateralism: 'mega FTAs' and the changing interface between environmental regulation and investment protection
     Sam Luttrell

12. Does the green economy need investor-state dispute settlement?
     Kyla Tienhaara

Part III. Regional Perspectives
13. Going green? The evolution of environmental provisions in India’s investment treaties
     Romesh Weeramantry and Montse Ferrer

14. Stabilisation clauses in long-term investment contracts in the energy sector in Africa
     Sotonye Frank

15. Environmental concerns and China’s international investment agreements
     Danni Liang

16. Balancing economic objectives and environmental considerations in new EU investment agreements: a brave new world?
     Rumiana Yotova

17. Investment claims against Latin American states: environmental protection and the applicable law
     Gabriel Bottini and Eliza Méndez Bräutigam

Part IV. Identity, Critique and Conceptualisation
18. Environment, foreign investment and gender
     Rachel J. Anderson

19. Natural resources and indigenous cultural heritage in international investment law and arbitration
     Valentina Vadi

20. Local communities, environment and development: the case of oil and gas investment in Africa
     Ibironke Odumosu-Ayanu

21. Socially and environmentally responsible investment
     Benjamin J. Richardson


Mitchell, Andrew, David Heaton & Caroline Henckels: Non-Discrimination and the Role of Regulatory Purpose in International Trade and Investment Law, Edward Elgar 2016, ISBN: 978 1 78536 810 3

Mohan, Mahdev & Chester Brown (eds): The Asian Turn in Foreign Investment, Cambridge Univ Press 2021, 400pp., ISBN 978-1-1084-2659-6

Part I. Introduction:
     1. The Asian Turn in Foreign Investment
Part II. National Approaches within Asia to the Regulation and Protection of Foreign Investment:
     2. Investment Agreements and Dispute Settlement In Singapore: Setting Standards
     3. Pharmaceutical Patents and Expropriation in Indian Bilateral Investment Treaties
     4. Out with the Old, in with the New: Unpacking Myanmar's Consolidated Investment Law
     5. China and the Investment Treaty Regime: Rule Taker or Rule Maker?
     6. Procedural Models to Upgrade Bits: China's Experience
Part III. The Re-Balancing of Regulatory Space and Investor Protection in Asia:
     7. Regulatory Power and Investors' Interests: Striking a Balance in Investment Treaties Concluded by Japan
     8. Investment Agreements and Regulatory Space In Indonesia
     9. Regulation of Foreign Investments in India: Analysing India's 2015 Model Bit
     10. The Regulation of Foreign Investments in Sri Lanka: a Policy-Based Perspective
Part IV. Multilateral Rule-Making in Asia on Trade and Investment: From ASEAN to the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership:
     11. The ASEAN Legal Framework for Free Trade and the Promotion and Protection of Foreign Investment
     12. ISDS Reform and the EU–Vietnam Investment Protection Agreement: Challenge Accepted!
     13. Investment Rule-Making In Asia-European Union Relations: Legal and Policy Considerations
     14. Reports of TPP's Death Have Been Greatly Exaggerated
Part V. Emerging Issues:
     15. The Due Diligence Expansion In International Investment Arbitration
     16. Combating Haze Pollution through the Enforcement of Investment Treaties and Human Rights
     17. Transparency in Investor-State Arbitration: Where Does Asia Stand?
     18. Third Party Funding in Asia: Developments in Singapore and Hong Kong
     19. Settling Investment Disputes through Mediation: Possibilities and Limitations
     20. The Singapore Convention on Mediation: Origins and Application to Investor-State Disputes
Part VI. What Lies Ahead?:
     21. Reconciling Public Interests with Private Interests in International Investment Arbitration and Securing

          Effective Remedy for Investment-Related Human Rights Violations
     22. Rebalancing Investment Treaties and Investor-State Arbitration in the Asian Region

Morosini, Fabio & Michelle Ratton Sanchez Badin (eds): Reconceptualizing International Investment Law from the Global South, Cambridge Univ Press 2018, 305 pp., ISBN 978-1-316-64020-3

Moskvan, Dominik: Protection of Foreign Investments in an Intra-EU Context - Not One BIT?, Edward Elgar 2022, ISBN: 978 1 80088 037 5

Muchlinski, Peter/Federico Ortino/Christoph Schreuer (eds): The Oxford Handbook of International Investment Law, Oxford Univ Press 2008, 1350 pp., ISBN 978-0199-23138-6

Nagy, Csongor István (ed): Investment Arbitration in Central and Eastern Europe - Law and Practice, Edward Elgar 2019, pp. i-xlii and 1-548

Nagy, Csongor István (ed): Investment Arbitration and National Interest, CILP 2019, 225 pp., ISBN 978-0985-8156-84

Nagy, Csongor István (ed): Global Values and International Trade Law, Routledge 2021, ISBN 9780367473846

Table of Contents

Foreword by Paolo Davide Farah

Introduction: Global Values and International Trade Law, Csongor István Nagy

Part 1: Cross-Cutting Value Standards in International Trade: Human Rights, Labor Standards and Environmental Protection

1. Business Meets Human Rights: Do We Need an International Treaty to Close the Gap?, Nóra Chronowski

2. Non-Trade Values, International Trade and Abuse of Rights, Anthony Cassimatis

3. International Labour Standards and Non-Trade Values, József Hajdú

4. Climate Change: The Tipping Point for Investment Treaty Reform, Rebecca E. Khan

5. International Investment Agreements and Sustainable Environmental Development: The Case of the Kyrgyz Republic’s Mining Sector, Begaiym Esenkulova

6. Global Labor Rights and the Interstitial Role of Trade Law, Alan Hyde

Part 2. The Protection of Intellectual Property

7. Trade, Intellectual Property Rights and the Exercise of Autonomy, David Tilt

8. Copyright Aspects of the European Union’s Free Trade Agreements, Péter Mezei

Part 3. Investment Protection

9. Extricating the Illegality Requirement from Judicial Expropriation, Martin Jarrett

10. Third Party Funding for SME Access to Investment Arbitration, Bálint Kovács

11. Foreign Investment Policy in the Post-Lisbon Common Commercial Policy. An Institutionalist Perspective, Péter Márton and Szilárd Gáspár-Szilágyi

12. International Investment Agreements: Recalibration in Progress: Regulating Investor Behaviour Through IIAs, Lukas Vanhonnaeker


Nelson, Timothy & Marco Schnabl: Safeguarding Against Expropriation of Assets in Latin America: the Bolivian Water Decision, Distilled, World Arbitration & Mediation Rev 2007, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 557-562

Ng, Michael: Foreign Direct Investment in China - Theories and Practice, Routledge 2013, 180 pp., ISBN 978-1-138-91039-3

O'Malley, Nathan: Rules of Evidence in International Arbitration - an Annotated Guide, Routledge 2019, ISBN 978-1-0321-7839-4

Ortino, Federico: The Obligation of Regulatory Stability in the Fair and Equitable Treatment Standard: How Far Have We Come?, Journal of Int'l Economic Law 2018, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 845-865

Ortino, Federico: The Origin and Evolution of Investment Treaty Standards: Stability, Value, and Reasonableness, Oxford Univ. Press 2020, ISBN 978-0198842637

Páez, Laura: Bilateral Investment Treaties and Regional Investment Regulation in Africa: Towards a Continental Investment Area?, The Journal of World Investment Law & Trade 2017, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 379-413

Paparinskis, Martins: Basic Documents on International Investment Protection, Hart Publishing 2012, 1000 pp., ISBN 978-1849-461368

Paparinskis, Martins: The International Minimum Standard and Fair and Equitable Treatment, Oxford Univ. Press 2014, 350 pp., ISBN 978-0198-7321-67

Park, Tae Jung: Incomplete International Investment Agreements, Edward Elgar 2022, ISBN: 978 1 80220 242 7

Parra, Antonio: The 2022 Amendments of the Regulations and Rules of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes: Change and Continuity, 23 J. World Investment & Trade 737 (2022)

Pellegrini, Lorenzo, Murat Arsel, Martí Orta-Martínez, & Carlos F Mena: International Investment Agreements, Human Rights, and Environmental Justice: The Texaco/Chevron Case From the Ecuadorian Amazon, Journal of Int'l Economic Law 2020, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 455-468

Peterson, Luke E. & Nick Gallus, International Investment Treaty Protection of Not-for-Profit Organizations, Int’l J. Not-for-Profit Law 2007, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 47-76

Phillips, Annie: US Investors and Expropriation Under the AUSFTA - Is the Protection Afforded to Investors Illusory?, Stockholm Int'l Arbitration Rev 2006, No. 3, pp. 67-88

Polanco Lazo, Rodrigo, Valentino Desilvestro & Azernoosh Bazrafkan: Missing Investment Treaties, Journal of Int'l Economic Law 2018, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 703-731

This article presents the situation of ‘Missing Investment Treaties’ (MITs), defined as those International Investment Agreements (IIAs) that have been concluded by States, but their texts (and in some cases their existence) are not publicly available or incomplete. In order to determine the number of MITs, we examined the text and language availability of IIAs concluded by countries, that are publicly available, and we complemented that information with country-specific searches from international, governmental and private sources. In turn, the article explores possible explanations to this State's behaviour, using the following questions as guidelines: Why would countries sign agreements that are supposedly negotiated to promote, protect or liberalise foreign investment without making those texts available? If a text of an IIA is publicly available, does it correspond to the language of both contracting parties, only one of them, or of a third country? Is it possible to achieve IIAs' objectives if the text of the treaty is not available, or is it available only in one language? Might there be other reasons to sign these agreements?

Polonskaya, Ksenia: Metanarratives as a Trap: Critique of Investor-State Arbitration Reform, Journal of Int'l Economic Law 2020, No. 4, pp. 949-971

Puig, Sergio: At the Margins of Globalization - Indigenous People and International Economic Law, Cambridge Univ. Press 2022, ISBN 978-1108740197

Radi, Yannick: Research Handbook on Human Rights and Investment, Edward Elgar 2018, ISBN 978 1 78254 911 6


Introduction: Taking stock of the societal and legal interplay between human rights and investment
     Yannick Radi

1. Human rights and international investment arbitration
     Ursula Kriebaum

2. Investment arbitration and human rights cases in Latin America
     Rodrigo Polanco and Rodrigo Mella

3. The shared territory of the ECHR and international investment law
     Maria Fanou and Vassilis Tzevelekos

4. Human rights, international investment law and transparency
     Laurence Boisson de Chazournes and Rukia Baruti

5. Human rights and investments at the WTO
     Valentina Vadi

6. Human Rights at the World Bank group
     Gwen Lehane

7. Corporate responsibility and human rights – Navigating between international, domestic and self-regulation
     Eric De Brabandere and Maryse Hazelzet

8. MNCs obligations in their 'sphere of influence'
     Gilles Lhuilier

9. International criminal responsibilities for MNCs violations of human rights
     Joanna Kyriakakis

10. Extraterritorial responsibility of the home States for MNCs violations of human rights
     Antal Berkes

11. Extractive industry investments and human rights
     Jacky Mandelbaum and Jennifer Loutit

12. Investments and human rights in the agricultural sector
     Kaitlin Cordes

13. Assessing human rights issues in the fashion industry – Challenges for investors
     Dorothée Baumann-Pauly and Sarah Margaretha Jastram

14. Private investments and the human right to water
     Mara Tignino

15. Investments and human rights in Asia
     Delphia Lim


Radi, Yannick: Rules and Practices of International Investment Law and Arbitration, Cambridge Univ Press 2020, pp. i-lxxii and 1-508, ISBN 978-1-107-49957-7

Rajput, Aniruddha: Regulatory Freedom and Indirect Expropriation in Investment Arbitration, Wolters Kluwer 2018, 250 pp., ISBN 978-9403-5062-41

Reed, Lucy & Jan Paulsson & Nigel Blackaby: Guide to ICSID Arbitration, Wolters Kluwer, 2nd ed. 2011, pp. i - xvii and 1 - 468, ISBN 978-90-411-3401-1

Roberts, Anthea, Henrique Choer Moraes & Victor Ferguson: Toward a Geoeconomic Order in International Trade and Investment, Journal of Int'l Economic Law 2019, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 655-676

Ruiz Fabri, Hélène & Edoardo Stoppioni (eds): International Investment Law: An Analysis of the Major Decisions, Hart Publishing 2022, ISBN 978-1509929047

     1. Introduction (Hélène Ruiz Fabri and Edoardo Stoppioni), 1
     2. Landmark Decisions for a Pre-History of International Investment Law (Edoardo Stoppioni), 9
     3. Ad hoc Investment Arbitration Based on State Contracts: From Lena Goldfields to the Libyan Oil

         Arbitrations (Daniel Müller), 21
     4. The World Court's Influence on Contemporary Investment Law (Christian J Tams and Eleni Methymaki), 37
     5. The Contribution of the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal (Bruno Simma and Cristina Hoss), 59
     6. SPP u Egypt, AAPL us Sri Lanka: Some Revolutionary Steps? (Evelyne Lagrange), 79
     7. Sowing the Seeds of an ISDS Legitimacy Crisis? The Notorious First Wave of NAFTA Chapter 11 Awards

         (Robert Howse and Günes Üuüvar), 99
     8. The Argentinian Crisis Arbitrations (August Reinisch and Johannes Tropper), 119
     9. The Yukos Saga: A Story of Hidden Matryoshka Dolls (Alexandre Senegacnik=, 135
     10. The Renewable Energy Arbitrations under the Energy Charter Treaty (Danae Azaria), 153

     11. Bifurcation and Trifurcation Decisions (Ivan Cavdarevic), 177

     12. Amicus Curiae lntervention: From NAFTA to the Intra-EU Saga (Eric De Brabandere), 193
     13. Challenges Decisions in International lnvestment Arbitration (Chiara Giorgetti), 211
     14. Major Decisions on the Definition of Investment (Shotaro Hamamoto), 227
     15. The Concept of Protected Investor (Alexandra van der Meulen), 243
     16. Landmark lnvestment Cases on State Consent (Christoph Schreuer), 259
     17. Counterclaims (Andrea K. Bjorklund), 275
     18. 'The Applicable Law Saga (Franck Latty and Marina Sim), 291
     19. International Investment Tribunals and Treaty Interpretation (Elise Ruggeri Ahonnat), 311
     20. Standard of Review (Joshua Paine), 327
     21. Expropriation C:ases (Diane A Desierto), 343
     22. Landmark Cases on Fair and Equitable Treatment: Empowering and Controlling Arbitrators as Law-Makers

           (Stephan W Schill), 359
     23. Umbrella Clauses and Contract Claims (Benjamin Samson), 381
     24. Denial of Benefits Clause (Paul Jean Le Cannu and Luisa F. Torres), 397
     25. Non-Discrimination Clauses: Most-Favoured-Nation and National Treatment (Giorgio Sacerdoti and

           Niall Moran), 427
     26. Reparation Cases: Applicable Principles in International lnvestment Arbitration (Irmgard Marboe), 443

     27. The Contribution of International Commercial Arbitration to lnvestn1ent Arbitration (George A Bermann), 463
     28. The European Court of Human Rights' Case Law on International lnvestment Issues (Ursula Kriebaum), 481
     29. The CJ EU Saga (Gillian Cahill and Daniel Sarmiento), 507
     30. The Legacy of the SADC Tribunal in International Investment Law (Henok Asmelash), 529
     31. Accountability Mechanisms and Investment Arbitration: Parallel Dynamics (Edouard Fromageau=, 545
     32. International Investment Law in Indian Courts (Ridhi Kabra), 557
     33. International Investment Law in US Courts (Javier Garcia Olmedo), 575
     34. Investment Cases in the Mexican Legal System: Willingness to Compensate, Federalism Issues, and Parallel

           Litigation (Guillermo J Garcia Sanchez), 591
     35. International Investment Law in African Courts (Makane Moise Mbengue and Stefanie Schacherer), 603
     36. International lnvestment Law in European Courts (Dominique Hascher), 617

Sabahi, Borzy/Noah Rubins/Don Wallace: Investor-State Arbitration, Oxford Univ Press 2019, 1000 pp., ISBN 978-0-1987-5576-0

Salacuse, Jeswald: The Three Laws of International Investment: National, Contractual, and International Frameworks for Foreign Capital, Oxford University Press 2013, pp. i - xxvi and 1 - 440, ISBN 978-0-19-965456-7

Santos, Alvaro & Chantal Thomas & David Trubek: World Trade and Investment Law Reimagined: A Progressive Agenda for an Inclusive Globalization, Anthem Press 2020, 280 pp., ISBN 978-1758-2745-27

Savage, John & Elodie Dulac: Chinese Investment Treaties and the Dispute Resolution Opportunities Offered by Most-Favored Nation Provisions, Stockholm Int'l Arbitration Rev 2008, No. 3, pp. 1-39

Schill, Stephan: The Multilateralization of International Investment Law, Cambridge Univ. Press 2009, 450 pp., ISBN 978-0-511-60515-4

Schneiderman, David: Investment Law's Alibis - Colonialism, Imperialism, Debt and Development, Cambridge Univ. Press 2022, ISBN 9781009153492

Shao, Xuan: Environmental and Human Rights Counterclaims in International Investment Arbitration: at the Crossroads of Domestic and International Law, Journal of Int'l Economic Law 2021, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 157-179

Shidi Wu, Wendy & Vanessa Tsang: Fair Game, Fair Play – The Advocacy of International Assistance for Developing Host States in Negotiating Investment Contracts, Journal of World Investment & Trade 2022, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 417-455

The obsolescing bargaining model suggests that the bargaining power involving large-scale investment projects eventually shifts from investors to host States, especially in extractives and infrastructure sectors. However, investor-State dispute settlement has become a potent mechanism for investors to claim remedies after a breach of contract, making it costly for host States to deviate from contractual terms. Hence, it is crucial to get investment contracts right at the negotiation stage. Yet, under-resourced developing countries often arrive at suboptimal contracts, due to a lack of clear objectives and a consistent strategy, multidisciplinary expertise, and access to information. Some institutional solutions are available, ranging from indirect to direct negotiation assistance. While helpful, indirect assistance is inadequate to meet the needs of developing countries. In comparison, direct negotiation assistance provided by organizations, such as African Legal Support Facility, International Senior Lawyers Project, and CONNEX, is more immediate and effective, and in the long-term interest of both host States and investors.

Sinha, Amit Kumar & Pushkar Anand: Feminist Overview of International Investment Law - a Preliminary Inquiry, Journal of Int'l Economic Law 2021, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 99-125

Sipiorski, Emily: Good Faith in International Investment Arbitration, Oxford Univ. Press 2019, 300 pp., ISBN 978-0198-8264-46

Sornarajah, Muthucumaraswamy: The International Law on Foreign Investment, Cambridge Univ. Press, 5th ed. 2021, 700 pp., ISBN 978-1108-7308-60

Sourgens, Frederic/Kabir Duggal/Ian Laird: Evidence in International Investment Arbitration, Oxford Univ Press 2018, 370 pp., ISBN 978-0-1987-5350-6

Stephan, Paul: International Trade and Investment, LexisNexis 201, 540 pp., ISBN 978-1-4227-5794-9

Tams, Christian, Stephan Schill & Rainer Hofmann (eds): International Investment Law and the Global Financial Architecture, Edward Elgar 2017, ISBN 978-1785368875

Thomé, Hugo: Holding Transnational Corporations Accountable for Environmental Harm Through Counterclaims in Investor-State Dispute Settlement: Myth or Reality?, Journal of World Investment & Trade 2021, Vol. 22, No. 5-6, pp. 651-686

Upreti, Pratyush: Intellectual Property Objectives in International Investment Agreements, Edward Elgar 2022, ISBN 978 1 80220 420 9

Üstün, Esra Yildiz: International Investment Dispute Awards - Facilitating Enforcement, Routledge 2022, ISBN 978-1-0321-0759-2

Vadi, Valentina: Environmental Impact Assessment in Investment Disputes: Method, Governance and Jurisprudence, Polish Yearbook of Int'l Law 2010, Vol. 30, pp. 169-204

Vadi, Valentina: When Cultures Collide: Foreign Direct Investment, Natural Resources, and Indigenous Heritage in International Investment Law, 42 Colum. Hum. Rts. L. Rev. 797 (2010-2011)

Vadi, Valentina: Cultural Heritage in International Investment Law and Arbitration, Cambridge Univ. Press 2016, 380 pp., ISBN 978-1316-6034-75

Vadi, Valentina: Heritage, Power, and Destiny: The Protection of Indigenous Heritage in International Investment Law and Arbitration, 50 Geo. Wash. Int'l L. Rev. 725 (2017-2018)

Vadi, Valentina: Proportionality, Reasonableness and Standards of Review in International Investment Law and Arbitration, Edward Elgar 2018, ISBN: 978 1 78536 857 8

Vandevelde, Kenneth: Bilateral Investment Treaties - History, Policy, and Interpretation, Oxford Univ Press 2010, 562 pp., ISBN 978-0-19-537136-9

VanDuzer, J. Anthony, Penelope Simons & Graham Mayeda: Integrating Sustainable Development in International Investment Agreements - a Guide for Developing Country Negotiators, Commonwealth Secretariat 2013, 600 pp., ISBN 978-1849-2908-69


Vanhonnaeker, Lukas: Intellectual Property Rights as Foreign Direct Investments - From Collision to Collaboration, Edward Elgar 2015, ISBN: 978 1 78471 250 1

Voon, Tania & Dean Merriman: Incoming: How International Investment Law Constrains Foreign Investment Screening, Journal of World Investment & Trade 2022 

1 Introduction

2 Developments in Inbound Investment Screening

2.1 Introduction of Screening Regimes

2.2 Growing Lists of Sensitive or Strategic Sectors

2.3 Provision for Retrospective Screening

3 Coverage of Foreign Investment Screening in International Investment Agreements

3.1 Definition of Investor: Sometimes Including Potential Investors

3.2 Definition of Investment: Existing Investments Only

3.3 Coverage of the Pre-Establishment Phase in Non-Discrimination Obligations

4 Key International Investment Obligations Affecting Foreign Investment Screening

4.1 Non-Discrimination

4.2 Performance Requirements and Senior Management Conditions

4.3 Protection Against Expropriation

4.4 Fair and Equitable Treatment

4.5 Stabilisation Clauses and Umbrella Clauses

5 Protection of Foreign Investment Screening from International Investment Agreements

5.1 Exclusion of Foreign Investment Screening from ISDS

5.2 Listing of Foreign Investment Screening as a Non-Conforming Measure

5.3 Exclusion of Particular Sectors

5.4 Security Exceptions

5.5 General Exceptions

6 Conclusion

Wu, Chien-Hu & Frank Gaenssmantel (eds): Law and Diplomacy in the Management of EU-Asia Trade and Investment Relations, Routledge 2019, ISBN 9780429461729

Yan, Yueming: Anti-Corruption Provisions in International Investment Agreements: Investor Obligations, Sustainability Considerations, and Symmetric Balance, Journal of Int'l Economic Law 2020, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 989-1013

Yannaca-Small, Katia (ed): Arbitration Under International Investment Agreements: A Guide to the Key Issues, Oxford Univ. Press, 2nd ed. 2018, 960 pp., ISBN 978-0198-7580-82

Part I: Investment Treaties and the Settlement of Investment Disputes: The Framework

1. Bilateral Investment Treaties and Investment Provisions in Preferential Trade Agreements: Recent Developments in Investment Rule-Making

2. The Energy Charter Treaty

3. International Investment Dispute Settlement Mechanisms

4. The Role of Precedent in Investment Treaty Arbitration

Part II: Guide to Key Preliminary and Procedural Issues

5. An Overview of Procedure in an Investment Treaty Arbitration

6. Aspects of Procedure for Institution of Proceedings and Establishment of Tribunals in Investment Treaty Arbitration

7. The Fate of Frivolous and Unmeritorious Claims

8. Challenges of Arbitrators in Investment Arbitration: Still Work in Progress?

9. Piercing the Veil of Confidentiality: The Recent Trend Towards Greater Public Participation and Transparency in Investment Treaty Arbitration

Part III: Guide to Key Jurisdictional Issues

10. Who Is Entitled to Claim? The Definition of Nationality in Investment Arbitration

11. The Meaning of "Investment" in Investment Treaty Arbitration

12. Bifurcation of Investment Disputes

13. Burden and Standard of Proof at the Jurisdictional Stage

14. Attribution: State Organs and Entities Exercising Elements of Governmental Authority

15. Breach of Treaty Claims and Breach of Contract Claims: When Can an International Tribunal Exercise Jurisdiction?

16. The Umbrella Clause: Is the Umbrella Closing?

17. Counterclaims in Investment Treaty Arbitration

18. The State's Corruption Defence: Prosecutorial Efforts, and Anti-Corruption Norms in Investment Treaty Arbitration

Part IV: Guide to Key Substantive Issues

19. The Law Applicable in Investment Treaty Arbitration

20. Fair and Equitable Treatment: Have Its Contours Fully Evolved?

21. The National Treatment Obligation

22. Indirect Expropriation and the Right to Regulate: Has the Line Been Drawn?

23. The MFN Clause and Its Evolving Boundaries

Part V: Remedies and Costs

24. Interim Relief in Investment Treaty Arbitration

25. Compensation and Damages in Investment Treaty Arbitration

26. Third-Party Funding in Investment Treaty Arbitration

Part VI: The Post-Award Phase

27. Annulment of ICSID Awards: Is It Enough or Is Appeal Around the Corner?

28. Review of Non-ICSID Awards by National Courts

29. Enforcement of Investment Treaty Awards

30. A Practical Guide: Research Tools in International Investment Law

Yu, Peter, The Investment-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Am. Univ. L. Rev 2017, Vol. 66, No. 3, pp. 829-910

Zhao, Chunlei: International Investment and Dispute Settlement - Understanding the China-European Union Comprehensive Agreement on Investment, Routledge 2022, ISBN 9781032128146

Zheng, Yawen: China's New Foreign Investment Law and Its Contribution Towards the Country's Development Goals, Journal of World Investment & Trade 2021, pp. 388-428

Živković, Velimir: Pursuing and Reimagining the International Rule of Law Through International Investment Law, Hague Journal on the Rule of Law 2020, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 1-27

to be added continuously


International Investment Agreements Navigator, an UNCTAD database with links to more than 2'800 Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) and more than 400 Treaties with Investment Provisions (TIPs)

Prof. Andrew Newcombe's italaw database of ISDS awards, decisions & materials

Leiden Investment Arbitration Database by Daniel Peat and Eric De Brabendere, Grotius Center for International Legal Studies

OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

Other Resources

Wojcik, Mark: International and Foreign Legal Research Resources at the Law Library of Congress, Pace International Law Review 2020, Vol. 32, pp. 359-406

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